An interesting concept about smart city came from Stephen Graham and Simon Marvin called Splintering Urbanism. According to igi-global.com dictionary, Splintering Urbanism refers to the ways in which infrastructures, including information and communication technologies, can fragment the experience of the city. Splintering Urbanism examines the role of urban infrastructure in fostering social and spatial inequality and identifies a new planning logic favouring the differential development of city spaces.
Splintering Urbanism redefine smart city concept of ubiquitous network city of standard integrated ideal into a new planning logic of differential development of urban and regional spaces. The development would be specific regarding regional characteristic. The concept is to provide the society with reliable and high-quality services through infrastructural projects to enable them liberated from standardized monopolistic network in urban areas.
Splintering urbanism can also arise as a result of free market thinking and the city government business model into infrastructure liberalisation. The most profitable areas would receive the best services, creating well-networked area of high value connected by heavily linked interconnections. On the contrary, less profitable areas would be left behind.
For example, Mumbai, India has an integrated, well-networked area called Badra Kurla Complex, but some parts of the city are still considered as underdeveloped. Same things happen in Durban, South Africa, and other big cities around the world.